The photographic camera evolved from the portable camera obscura which had its beginnings in the late 17th century CE. As long ago as the 5th century BCE in China, Mo Ti and Chouang Chou saw an optical image which had been projected through a pinhole onto a screen in a dark place. They had witnessed a natural process that was central to the development of the camera obscura
(L. ‘dark chamber’) which projects a two dimensional, inverted and laterally reversed, full colour representation of the exterior three-dimensional space. The additional dimension of time is involved, as any movement is projected in the image. In 1545 R. G. Frisius1
published an engraving of the safe observation of a solar eclipse using a camera obscura.